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Tuesday, January 3, 2012

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)


Short for Code-Division Multiple Access, a digital cellular technology that uses spread-spectrum techniques. Unlike competing systems, such as GSM, that use TDMA, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user. Instead, every channel uses the full available spectrum. Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence. CDMA consistently provides better capacity for voice and data communications than other commercial mobile technologies, allowing more subscribers to connect at any given time, and it is the common platform on which 3G technologies are built.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

CDMA users share a common frequency channel. All users are on the same frequency at the same time. However, each pair of users is assigned a special code that reduces interference while increasing privacy.

    Advantages of CDMA

Most efficient use of available bandwidth the foremost advantage is the large band width and its equivalent effect utilization for sending and receiving the data.

No separate time Access divisions
In CDMA technology there is no time limitation slot division for using the band width and sending and receiving the data like in TDMA.

Power and bandwidth frequency
Power frequency remains constant in both sending and receiving and uniform bandwidth keeps the transmission faster and in time.

Resource allocation
Another advantage of CDMA is the flexible resource allocation which means that a certain kind of pin code is provide to the active users to communicate with each other. Fixed time and bandwidth keeps the simultaneous exchange of message at both sender and receivers end and specific number of packets with limited length keeps the extra traffic out of the channel.

    Disadvantages of CDMA     

The main disadvantage of CDMA is that it can’t be used for the multi channel or multiple transmission paths. All the communication is performed over a single path. This make it fixed for singular purposes which is main drawback of CDMA technology.

    Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)  

Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) - A variation of TDMA and CDMA that potentially will be used in high-bandwidth, third-generation wireless products.

SDMA is a channel access method based on creating parallel spatial pipes next to higher capacity pipes through spatial multiplexing and/or diversity, by which it is able to offer superior performance in radio multiple access communication systems. In traditional mobile cellular network systems, the base station has no information on the position of the mobile units within the cell and radiates the signal in all directions within the cell in order to provide radio coverage. This results in wasting power on transmissions when there are no mobile units to reach, in addition to causing interference for adjacent cells using the same frequency, so called co-channel cells. Likewise, in reception, the antenna receives signals coming from all directions including noise and interference signals. By using smart antenna technology and differing spatial locations of mobile units within the cell, space-division multiple access techniques offer attractive performance enhancements. The radiation pattern of the base station, both in transmission and reception, is adapted to each user to obtain highest gain in the direction of that user. This is often done using phased array techniques.

     Comparison of Multiple Access Systems

Comparison of Multiple Access Systems_CDMA_FDMA_TDMA
Comparison of Multiple Access Systems

This table summarizes some of the technical aspects of the multiple access technologies.

The technology used determines the channel's capacity. TDMA triples the capacity of FDMA, but CDMA capacity can be up to seven times that of TDMA.

                   WiFi Notes
                   CDMA University
                   How Stuff Works

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