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Tuesday, May 10, 2011

High Performance Logic Technology and Reliability Challenges

Power Trend
Fig 1.3 Power growing due to increased operating frequency and increased transistor count.

The remarkable characteristic of transistors that fuels the rapid growth of the information technology industry is that their speed increases and their cost decreases as their size is reduced. The only other product in manufacturing with this characteristic over such a vast range of size reduction is the hard disk drive with magnetic storage. The transistors manufactured today are 20 times faster and occupy less than 1% of the area of those built 20 years ago. It seems intuitively obvious that

continued reduction of the area of a transistor by a factor of 2 every three years cannot be sustained forever. However, predictions of the limit of size reduction or even of the pace of size reduction As shown in Fig 1.5 have proven to elude the most insightful prognosticators. The predicted “limit” has been dropping at nearly the same rate as the size of the transistors. The accuracy of a prediction of the future of CMOS technology is therefore not likely to be very great. However, the key principles underlying the evolution of CMOS technology can give us some insight into the future.

Fig 1.4 We find the increase in number of transistor

Fig 1.5 Reduction in size

Fig 1.6 Increase in frequency response

We find from this figure :

Logic Technology Evolution

Each new technology generation provides:

1)  Size scaling decrease by 1.42 .

2)  Increase in transistor density by 2.

3) Increase transistor switching speed by 1.5.

4) Reduced chip power.

5) Reduced chip cost.

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