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Friday, November 18, 2011

Cell Phone Network Coverage



Network coverage

A key part of any mobile phone specification is its operating frequency bands. The supported frequency bands determine
whether a certain handset is compatible with a certain network carrier.



Cell Phone Network Coverage,GSM,2G,3G
Cell Phone Network Coverage
Beside the mobile phone specifications, GSM Arena is happy to also provide you with its own country-based frequency band directory. It's not operator-specific and it's helpful if you are choosing a handset to use in your home country or if you are making sure your phone will work in the country you are heading to.
You select the country you are interested in - as an example i selected Egypt - :

EGYPT

GSM 850     GSM 900     GSM 1800     GSM 1900     UMTS 850     UMTS 1900     UMTS 2100
  No               Yes               Yes                 No                  No                   No                    Yes   


Making calls, sending text messages and using GPRS/EDGE mobile data connection in the country of your choice requires a mobile phone that supports at least the frequency band filled as “Required” below.

2G capabilities

Required   GSM 900
Recommended   GSM 900 and GSM 1800

Making video calls and using a high-speed 3G data connection in the country of your choice, requires a mobile phone that supports at least the frequency band filled as “Required” below .

3G capabilities

Required   UMTS 2100


Make note that for complete accuracy you should always check with your home service provider or with the local service providers in the country you are staying at.

Check Network Coverage for your Country GSM Arena - Network Bands

Source:
                  * GSM Arena




" Cell Phone Network Coverage " !

Saturday, November 12, 2011

GSM Architecture and Definitions (3)


    The Operation and Support System 

The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system (OSS). The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized, regional, and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organizations.


GSM Operation and Support System (OSS)
GSM Operation and Support System (OSS)
OSS: The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system (OSS).
       Here are some of the OMC functions:
       * Administration and commercial operation (subscription, end terminals, charging and statistics).
       * Security Management.
       * Network configuration, Operation and Performance Management.

       * Maintenance Tasks.    

GSM Architecture and Definitions
GSM Architecture and Definitions






GPRS (General Packet Radio Services
GPRS (General Packet Radio Services)

    
GPRS General Packet Radio Services

GPRS is a data network that overlays a second-generation GSM network. This data overlay network provides packet data transport at rates from 9.6 to 171 kbps. Additionally, multiple users can share the same air-interface resources simultaneously.

GPRS attempts to reuse the existing GSM network elements as much as possible, but to effectively build a packet-based mobile cellular network, some new network elements, interfaces, and protocols for handling packet traffic are required.


GSM Architecture and Definitions
GSM Architecture and Definitions


External Networks
  PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network
  ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network
  PDN: Packet Data Network

Refferance:
   * Alcatel-Lucent
   * Private Line
   * Tutorials Point 
  * SS7 Training



" GSM Architecture and Definitions (3) " !

GSM Architecture and Definitions (2)


    The Network Switching System  
 

The Network switching system (NSS) is responsible for performing call processing and subscriber-related functions. The switching system includes the following functional units.


GSM Architecture and Definitions
GSM Architecture and Definitions
MSC: Mobile Switching Center a switching exchange whose main functions are:
       – Call Handling
       – Specific GSM functions such as:
         • Mobility Management: Communication with the Location Databases (VLR
           and HLR)
         • Handover execution when involved
       – Gateway Function for Terminating Call (TC)
    VLR: Visitor Location Register is associated with one or more MSC. It is a local database with the following
         information:
         – Copy of the HLR data for visiting subscribers
         – More precise location of the Mobile Station (an area of the network called
           “Location Area” which is a group of cells

         – Call re-direction data


GSM Architecture and Definitions
GSM Architecture and Definitions

                                                                                                                                                      Next  

Refferance:    
                   * Alcatel-Lucent    
                   * Private Line    
                   * Tutorials Point    
                   * SS7 Training




" GSM Architecture and Definitions (2) " !

GSM Architecture and Definitions (1)



    What is GSM?           

GSM, which stands for Global System for Mobile communications, reigns as the world’s most widely used cell phone technology. Cell phones use a cell phone service carrier’s GSM network by searching for cell phone towers in the nearby area.

The origins of GSM can be traced back to 1982 when the Groupe Sp├ęcial Mobile (GSM) was created by the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) for the purpose of designing a pan-European mobile technology.


It is approximated that 80 percent of the world uses GSM
GSM Architecture and Definitions
GSM Architecture and Definitions
technology when placing wireless calls, according to the GSM
Association (GSMA), which represents the interests of the worldwide mobile communications industry. This amounts to nearly 3 billion global people.

    GSM Network Structure   

The network is structured into a number of discrete sections:

   *  The Base Station Subsystem (the base stations and their controllers).
   *  The Network and Switching Subsystem (the part of the network most similar to a fixed network). This is sometimes also just called the core network.
   * The GPRS Core Network (the optional part which allows packet based Internet connections).
   *  The Operations support system (OSS) for maintenance of the network.
 

Now,We will explain the meaning of the GSM Network shortcuts.

PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network is area covered by one network operator. A PLMN can contain one or more MSCs.
GSM: Global System for Mobile communication
  MS: Mobile Station is used by the subscriber for calling another subscriber either in the fixed network or in the mobile network.A Mobile Station (MS) is composed of a Mobile Termination (MT) and a Subscriber Module Identity (SIM) card.
   MT: Mobile Termination.The MT performs the following functions:
       - radio transmission termination;
       - radio transmission channel management;
       - terminal capabilities, including presentation of a  man-machine interface to a user;
       - speech encoding/decoding;
       - error protection for all information sent across the radio path;
       - flow control of signalling and user data;
       - rate adaptation of user data between the radio channel rate and user rates;
       - multiple terminal support;
       - mobility management.

SIM: SIM card stores information concerning the subscriber such as subscriber identity,services subscribed, parameters for security procedures and information on the location of the subscriber (dynamically refreshed according to its movements).
  Um > The Radio Interface between MS and Base Station.
     UpLink: The Path of the Data from MS to Base Station.
     DownLink: The Path of the Data from Base Station to MS.


GSM Architecture and Definitions
GSM Architecture and Definitions


GSM Architecture and Definitions
GSM Architecture and Definitions

                                                                                                   Next
Refferance:
   * Alcatel-Lucent
   * Private Line
   * Tutorials Point 
  * SS7 Training



" GSM Architecture and Definitions (1) " !